News Developments

Labor Laws for Women that Every Employer Should Know

Are you an employer having women employees in your organization? Then you must be aware of the labor laws that help in protecting women rights and equality in the workplace. The laws are created as a standard of fairness and equality. Some of the labor laws for women are listed below:

CA Labor Law PostersWomen suffrage
Women suffrage is the right of the women to vote equally as men. Here, the women has power to vote the candidate who would protect the fair pay, labor rights and equality of women in the workplace.

Fair labor standards act (FLSA)
There are many issues covered under the FLSA, it also tried establishing equal wages and overtime pay for women. But amending this act, equal pay act came in to existence which aims at abolishing the wage inequality based on the sex. This laws or acts help women in getting fair wages as men.

Family and medical leave act (FMLA)
This act is for both men and women and is applicable for the companies who are having minimum of 50 plus employees. This act states that employer must grant an unpaid leave of maximum 12 weeks and also job protected leave to expecting employees for the adoption or birth of employees. This act not only gives job protection to women who decide to have a baby but also for the men who want to take leave or remain in home for taking care of his spouse, child or parents with serious illness.

Whistleblower protection
It generally includes many issues. But, when it comes to women, this protection is extend to the women who are victims of sex discrimination or reprisal by encouraging those with illegal knowledge and come forward by promising protection from unlawful judgment, percentage of money recovered, no risk of counterattack from a group accused or organization, protection from sexual discrimination.

Comprehensive omnibus budget reconciliation act (COBRA)
This act is beneficial for women, especially single mothers, who decide job transition or else suffer an involuntary loss of job, during the transition to new job, divorce, family death, hourly cut back which reduces from full to part time and other kinds of tragic life events.

Pregnancy discrimination act
This is an amendment to civil rights act of 1964 which exists to prohibit the sex discrimination based on the pregnancy, child birth, etc. This act states that women affected with pregnancy must be treated as other employees of the organization.

These are few labor laws related to women. So, every employer must know them and should implement the same in their organization for protecting women rights.

Filed under Business

What is Content Marketing and Why is it Important?

Simply put, content marketing is all about how a business communicates effectively with existing and potential customers about their company, products or services in a meaningful and productive way. The prime tool in the stratedy is content. Content marketing is creating content that is valuable and relevant to targeted customers.

Content marketing builds trust in a company, creates a connection and increases brand awareness. Having trust and being connected to a brand makes a customer more loyal to the business. In this article we will discuss why content marketing is important.

It is an art of communicating with your customers
Content marketing is a great way to interact with your existing and new customers who find your brand interesting and buyable, with a goal of driving profitable customer action. To get your customers interested and engaged, content marketing is a way to attract your prospective customers, and establishes your business as a trusted source of information.

You are delivering information that makes your customer more intelligent
By providing valuable information to your potential customers, you are not only letting them know about your company, products/services, but you are also educating them on what type of products you offer, what are its features and how it is helpful. This information makes the buyer more knowledgeable and intelligent, which in return promotes brand loyalty.

Develops relationship and builds trust
People like to do business or buy products from brands whom they know and trust. When you engage in content marketing, your potential customers come to know about your business and trust you through your content.

Content marketing establishes you as an expert in your field. This leads to building trust and awareness. It is also a great way to develop a stronger and long lasting relationship with your customers.

Your customers want to share it with their social networks
Once you build trust and relationships among your potential customers, they will tell their social media circle about your company and its products/services. They will share your valuable content with their network of family and friends. As your content is shared, people visit your site to know more about your company and its products. The more of your content is shared, the more customers will interact with your brand, and they are more likely to buy from your brand.

The bottom line is, content marketing helps prospects and customers make an informed buying decision. It will have a big influence in keeping your existing customers engaged and in reaching out to new customers.

Filed under Business, Top News

OSHA: What does It Cover?

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) is a government agency that is within the department of labor. OSHA is accountable for setting, supporting and implementing the standards to ensure that the employees have the safe workplace. Under OSHA many employees or employers or workers are covered. To know them in detail go through the following information.

labor law posterOSHA coverages
OSHA standards cover most of the employees. But, there are also a few employees or workers that are not covered under OSHA. The details are as follows:

Private sector employers and their employees – Most of the workers or employees in the nation come under OSHA’s territory, and it covers most of the employers and employees either through the federal OSHA or through the state authorized OSHA plan. The safety and health plans that are run by the state must be at least as effective as federal OSHA program. You can contact OSHA office for more information.

Local government and state workers – Employees who are working under a state or local government are not covered under Federal OSHA. But, they will have the OSHA Act protection, if they are working in the states which have OSHA approved plan for that state. Not all states have this OSHA approved state occupational safety and health programs; and this differs from state to state in a country. So, make sure whether your state has the OSHA program or not.

Federal government workers – Federal agencies should have the safety and health program that meets the standards identical as the private employers. OSHA monitors the federal agencies and responds to the complaints of the workers, though it doesn’t fine the federal agencies.

Employers or employees not covered under OSHA – OSHA will not recognize some employees to be covered under this act. Some of them are – self-employed individuals and close family members of the farm employers. There are also some workplaces that are exempted, including places of employment where federal agencies set some working conditions like mining, nuclear energy fields etc. This also include the state and local governments which doesn’t have OSHA approved health and safety programs.

These are the areas that OSHA covers or doesn’t cover. So, every employer and employee must be aware of these facts, if they are part of a business or an organization. If you are covered under this act, you will have several rights and responsibilities.
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How Online Marketing is Better Than Traditional Marketing

Since long, marketing strategy and campaigning was dominated predominantly by traditional way of marketing. Everyone of us might have come across sales persons at our doors trying to promote or sell their products. This is a type of traditional marketing. Traditional marketing is often very costly and slow due to large workforce involved and lot of resources. Advertising through roadside hoardings, newspaper advertisements, television advertisements, distributing brochures, etc., are all ways of traditional marketing. It lacked reach and effectiveness. People always do not access the channels through which this promotion is done.

On the contrary, online marketing is very innovative and has widespread reach. It is accessible to almost everyone. In this way, internet provides a very good platform for marketing and advertising.

Traditional marketing vs online marketing

  • Traditional marketing
    Due to the large amount of resources that are put to use, the cost of the traditional marketing increases. Much expenditure is incurred on things such as renting space for hoarding, printing the banners, arranging for the workforce, transportation and a lot more. This is one of the major reasons it is pursued less nowadays.

    Secondly, the performance and success of the campaigning and promotion cannot be measured with good accuracy. Only estimates can be made regarding these. Most of the times success is rated through the number of sales that happened in a particular area. The reach of the traditional marketing is very much limited. Promoters have to campaign in each of the local markets separately. This amounts to a lot of expenditure. The effect of traditional marketing is slow. It takes time to build brands and enhance brand recognition.

  • Online marketing
    Internet is one of the most useful utility feature of the 21st century. It has created a revolution in the era of information technology. Fortunately, internet also provides a very reliable and effective platform for marketing and promoting products and brands. It is fast and within no time targets the customers. In a short time, it creates a much larger impact. There are many ways through which traffic and success of a campaign can be measured. Exact numbers can be obtained regarding how many sales happened, how many persons interacted, number of likes, shares, etc. The reach of the method is extensive and covers local, national and international markets in an appreciable way.

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Pay-Per-Click Online Advertising and Its Benefits

Pay-Per-Click (PPC) is an online advertising model through which advertisers pay the publishers when the customer or visitor clicks on the ad displayed. Through this, both the advertiser and the publisher are benefited and this is a part of affiliate marketing because both help one another. PPC ads have strong impact on the customers through which advertisers can enhance their business.

PPC will be of two types one is flat rate PPC and the other is bid-based PPC. In a flat-rate PPC model, both the advertiser and the publisher agree for a fixed amount of money for each click made where as in bid-based PPC the advertisers has to compete with the competitors in an auction hosted by publisher and here the advertiser has to pay the publisher based on the bid made.

Through PPC advertising, the advertiser and the publishers both are benefited. Here are some of the advantages of PPC advertising.

Advantages of PPC

Quick launch
The PPC campaign can be launched quickly in the market and target the group of audience. These PPC ads will bring the targeted traffic to your site. With this traffic, your business will expand in the market quickly and chance of gaining brand image.

Deciding budget
In PPC, online advertising the advertiser has the choice of setting the budget based on the targeted traffic and keywords. The advertiser sometimes decides the budget based on the bidding made. Therefore, the advertiser can save the money without any losses.

Result based payment
Here the money is paid by the advertiser to the publisher only when the click is made by the customers on the ad and the advertiser need not pay for placing their ads on the publisher’s site. Therefore, the advertiser will not loose with this PPC ads.

Strong branding
With PPC ads, the business product or service will have good brand image among the customers. Through this, the advertiser will have good revenue and strong branding in the market.

Fast results
PPC ads will have strong impact on the customers and the results achieved will be very fast when compared to the SEO campaigns, which will take long time for achieving results.

Measure the conversion
With PPC, advertising you can measure the conversion rate and you can calculate the ROI (Return on Investment). This helps in achieving campaign results easily.

These are the few PPC benefits that an advertiser can achieve with his/her campaign.
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Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Top Customer Rated Cars of 2014 Given By Kelly Blue Book

Are you a car lover and very curious to know what are the top selling cars in 2014, then this article is for you. In this article we are going to discuss about the top selling car of 2014 rated by Kelly Blue Book. In this article we are going to study about the list of top selling cars in 2014 with their rating points and some features of the car.

S.No Rank Model Rating Points
1 #1 Chevrolet Silverado 9
2 #1 Toyota Corolla 9
3 #3 Ram Trucks 8.8
4 #3 Ford Fusion 8.8
5 #4 Ford F-Series 8.7
6 #5 Honda Civic 8.6
7 #6 Toyota camry 8.5
8 #7 Honda Accord 8.2
9 #8 Nissan Altima 7.8
10 #9 Honda CR-V 7.7

From the panel given, it’s clear that Chevrolet Silverado and Toyota Corolla secured the top position in the Kelly Blue Book’s in customer rating with 9.0 rating points out of 10. In this article, we’ll discuss all the rating points given and some of the featured equipped in the top ranked vehicle.

Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab
The all new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab comes with all new design,the look of the new released model is entirely different form the previous version.
2014 Chevrolet Silverado also ranked #3 out of 17 in most fuel efficient car rated by Kelly Blue Book.

Expert rating points
The following are the some of the rating points give to the 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab by Kelly Blue Book (KBB):

  • The Kelly Blue Book (KBB) rated 7.2 out of 10 for the driving dynamics.
  • 8.0 out of 10 for its comfort and the convenience.
  • 7.8 out of 10 for its design (Interior and Exterior).
  • The over all rating points given by the KBB Experts is 7.8 out of 10.0.

Specification of 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab

  • Engine Performances

The 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab engine comes with direct fuel-injection, an all-aluminum design, and cylinder deactivation technology that seamlessly shuts down half of the engine’s cylinders under light loads.

A 6-speed automatic transmission linked to a manual shift mode is standard.
The 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab has net horsepower of 285@5300rpm and has a 305lb-ft@3500 rpm of torque.

  • Fuel Economy
  • When coming to the fuel efficiency, the estimated fuel economy in city is 18mpg, Whereas coming to highways the estimated fuel economy is 24mpg.

  • Some of the notable feature of 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab
  • Air bags
  • Driver Air Bag
  • Passenger Air Bag
  • Side Head Air Bag
  • Rear Head Air Bag
  • Side Air Bag
  • Braking system
  • 4-Wheel ABS
  • 4-Wheel Disc Brakes
  • Safety features
  • Electronic Stability Control system
  • Daytime Running Lights
  • Child Safety Locks system
  • Traction Control system

Price range
The 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab comes with a price range of $25,575–$49,180

Pros of 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab

  • It has e9xcellent fuel economy for a truck

Cons of 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab

  • It has grabby regenerative brakes
  • Very low towing capacity.

These are some of the details of the all new Chevrolet Silverado 1500,I hope this article will help you to purchase a new Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Crew Cab.
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Employers, Employees And Labor Unions Under National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)

California Labor Law PostersAbout NLRA
NLRA stands for National Labor Relations Act. The law gives the employees the right to organize and form unions in order to bargain collectively for better terms and conditions at workplace. This law provides provisions for employees to ensure their own interests and welfare by engaging in certain welfare activities and putting their demands collectively before their employer.

A new or existing employee is free to join any union as per his choice and he cannot be forced to make a choice. He can even choose to stay without joining any union. Unions give employees a means to address their grievances and stand unitedly against any injustice or violation of interests.

The Law also accommodates features to ensure that none of the parties misuse the law and the vested powers by virtue of this law by providing the guidelines for each party. The elections of the labor unions and the grievance handling is done by a body called the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).

The law is not applicable to the Federal, State and local government bodies and mostly applies to the private firms only. These laws do not cover railway employees, agricultural and individual employees and their close relatives.

Provisions and guidelines for the unions
As per the provisions of the NLRA, the workers can form a union for their collective interests. They can organize and collectively discuss among themselves for better wages, work hours and other welfare issues and later discuss and bargain them with the employers.

Employers in the from of unions can work collectively to enhance the working conditions of the workplace and improve it in terns of safety and convenience.

Every employee under the law has the right to join or form an union. They can also choose to assist any of the union without joining it. But it is not mandatory on the part of the employee to join an union. It depends completely on his will whether to join or avoid a union. He cannot be forced by some union members to join his union.

Same ways, unions cannot threaten an employee with loosing a job for not joining the union. This is illegal under the law for the union to force an employee. An union cannot discriminate an employee on the ground that he does not belong to his union and if such employee comes with a grievance, it is the duty of the union to address it. An union should also not try to influence the hiring process by making some undue and unjustified recommendations.

The law has been established that the employees address and bargain collectively in a good faith over genuine things. Undue demands and issues should not be promoted by the unions under the cover of the law. Hence, tough they can do strikes and picketing; they should ensure that the reason is worth doing it.

Guidelines for employers
The employer should be mindful and considerate about the rights and the welfare of the employees and should not try to discourage union and its activities. Hence an employer should not threaten, force or lure someone in form of bribes to discourage some union activity or to avoid joining some union. An employer cannot simply demote, fire or discriminate a person because he is indulging in some union activity. This is against the law. Similarly as an employer, you cannot hinder or stop any union activity that is happening at times other than work time. Spying and video graphing the union activities that are legitimate is also a violation to the act.

An employer should take the labor unions in good faith and heed their grievances and address them if they are justified. The employer is also protected by the same law for any inappropriate activity of the labor unions. Hence an employer need to have faith in the law and abide by his set of guidelines.

Complaint systems
Any act of discrimination or violation of the law should be brought to the notice of the federal agency NLRB within six months. The law stands for vested interests of the employees and gives enough protection to the employer against any unlawful or illegitimate demand of the union.
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New Car Launches by Dodge in USA 2014

Dodge Motors in USA makes minivans and sports utility vehicles. In this article, we list a couple of new cars that Dodge Motors is launching this year (with specifications and their performance features).

The newly launching/launched cars by Dodge Motors we are discussing in this article are:

  • Dodge Grand Caravan
  • Dodge Challenger

Dodge Grand Caravan 2014
Dodge Grand Caravan is a Small Station Wagon manufactured by Dodge motors. The Grand Caravan may be one of the longest-running names in the minivan business.

Specifications of Dodge Grand Caravan 2014

Gas Mileage 17 mpg City/25 mpg Hwy
Fuel Economy combined 20 mpg
Engine Regular Unleaded V-6, 3.6 L
Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
Base Curb Weight 1960 KG
Passenger Capacity 7
Turning Diameter – Curb to Curb (ft) 39.1
Net Horse Power @ RPM 283 @ 6400
EPA Class 2WD Minivans
Net Torque @ RPM 260 @ 4400
Steering Type Rack-Pinion
Displacement 3.6 L/220
Passenger Doors 4
Body Style Mini-van, Passenger
Fuel Tank capacity 75.70Liters (20 Gallons)
Transmission system 6-Speed Automatic 62TE

Features of Dodge Grand Caravan 2014

  • Power mirrows, locks and windows
  • A removable second-row bench seat
  • Fold-away third-row seating
  • Cruise control system
  • Key less entry system.
  • A power liftgate,
  • Power sliding doors
  • Power driver seat,
  • Ambient interior lighting
  • Satellite radio system.
  • Safety Features
  • Parking sensors,
  • A rear view camera system.
  • blind-spot monitors system
  • Automatic headlights.
  • Dual front airbags
  • Stability control system
  • Curtain airbags extend protection to all three rows of seats.
  • Performance of Dodge Grand Caravan 2014

    • A V6-Cylinder engine 283-horsepower 3.6-liter engine, 6-Speed Automatic Transmission system.
    • Fuel Efficiency of 17 city/25 hwy
    • The combine rating of this car is 20 mpg.

    Dodge Challenger 2014
    Dodge Challenger is a Mid-Size Cars manufactured by Dodge motors. Dodge Challenger is the most faithful to its original pony-car roots and the design formula that made it a classic.

    Specifications of Dodge Challenger 2014

    Gas Mileage 18 mpg City/27 mpg Hwy
    Fuel Economy combined 21 mpg
    Engine Regular Unleaded V-6, 3.6 L
    Driving Type Rear Wheel Drive
    Base Curb Weight 1740KG
    Passenger Capacity 5
    Turning Diameter – Curb to Curb (ft) 38.1
    Net Horse Power @ RPM 305 @ 6350
    EPA Class Mid-Size Cars
    Net Torque @ RPM 268 @ 4800
    Steering Type Rack-Pinion
    Displacement 3.6 L/220
    Passenger Doors 2
    Body Style 2dr Car
    Fuel Tank capacity 73.81Liters (19.5 Gallons)
    Transmission system 5-Speed Automatic (W5A580)

    Features of Dodge Challenger 2014

    • Power mirrors, locks and windows.
    • Automatic climate control.
    • Key less entry and start system.
    • Cruise control system.
    • A power driver’s seat.
    • Fog lamps.
    • Park assist.
    • A lower axle ratio.
    • Larger disc brakes.
    • Sportier suspension and steering tuning.
    • Premium sound system.
    • HID headlamps.
    • Safety Features
  • Electronic stability control system.
  • Front, side, and side-curtain airbags.
  • Anti-lock brakes system.
  • Hill Start Assist system.
  • A driver’s knee bag.
  • A rearview camera system.
  • Blind-spot monitors.
  • Performance of Dodge Challenger 2014

    • A V6-Cylinder engine 305-horsepower 3.3-liter engine, 6-Speed Automatic Transmission system.
    • Fuel Efficiency of 18 city/27 hwy.
    • The combine rating of Dodge Challenger to get 60 mph in just 6.3 second.

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    New Car Launches by Honda in USA 2014

    Honda is known for producing quality vehicles. This year, the car manufacturer a few new vehicles. In this article, we have listed out some of new cars that Honda Motors is launching this year with specifications and their performance features.

    Some of the newly launching/launched cars by Honda are as follows:

    • Honda Civic
    • Honda CR-V

    Honda Civic 2014
    Honda Civic is the one of the compact cars launched by Honda motors.

    Specifications of Honda Civic 2014

    Gas Mileage 28 mpg City/36 mpg Highway
    Fuel Economy combined 31 mpg
    Engine Regular Unleaded I-4, 1.8 L
    EPA Class Compact cars
    Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
    Passenger capacity 5
    Turning diameter – curb to Curb (ft) 35.4
    Base curb weight 1250 KG
    Net horse power 143@6500
    Net torque 129@4300
    Displacement 1.8L/110
    Passenger doors 4
    Body style 4dr Car
    Fuel tank capacity 50 liters (13.2 gallons)
    Transmission system 5-Speed Manual

    Features of Honda Civic 2014

    • VSA Electronic Stability Control (ESC), which improves safety of a vehicle stability by detecting and reducing loss of skidding.
    • Anti Braking System And Drive line Traction Control system
    • Side Impact Beams
    • Dual stage driver and passenger seat-mounted side airbags
    • Low tire pressure warning
    • Dual stage driver and passenger front airbags
    • Curtain 1st And 2nd Row Airbags
    • Airbag occupancy sensor
    • Rear child safety locks
    • Outboard front lap and shoulder safety belts
    • Rear view camera

    Performance of Honda Civic 2014

    • A I4-Cylinder engine 143-horsepower 1.8-liter 5-Speed Manual transmission system.
    • Fuel Efficiency of 28 city/36 hwy
    • The combine rating of this car is 31 mpg.
    • I4-cylinder engine allows the Honda Civic to get 60 mph in just 10 seconds.

    Honda CR-V 2014
    Honda CR-V is the one of the small sport utility vehicles launched by Honda motors.

    Specifications of Honda CR-V 2014

    Gas Mileage 23 mpg City/31 mpg Highway
    Fuel Economy combined 26 mpg
    Engine Regular Unleaded I-4, 2.4 L
    EPA Class Small Sport Utility Vehicles
    Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
    Passenger Capacity 5
    Turning Diameter – Curb to Curb (ft) 37
    Base curb weight 1450 KG
    Net horse power 185 @ 7000
    Net torque 163 @ 4400
    Displacement 2.4 L/144
    Passenger doors 4
    Body style Sport utility
    Fuel tank capacity 58 Liters (15.3 Gallons)
    Transmission System 5-Speed Automatic, grade logic control

    Features of Honda CR-V 2014

    • Blue tooth hands-free connectivity and streaming audio.
    • This system can handle SMS texting (reading and pre-set replying)
    • A Pandora app, with turn-by-turn directions, and trip computer data
    • You also have the option to display wallpaper (your pictures).
    • Electronic Stability Control (ESC), that improves safety of a vehicle stability by detecting and reducing loss of Skidding.
    • Anti Braking System And Drive line Traction Control system
    • Dual stage driver and passenger seat-mounted side airbags
    • Low tire pressure warning
    • Wide-angle side mirrors
    • Dual stage driver and passenger front airbags
    • Curtain 1st And 2nd Row Airbags
    • Airbag occupancy sensor
    • Rear child safety locks
    • Outboard front lap and shoulder safety belts
    • Rear view camera.

    Performance of Honda Civic 2014

    • A I4-Cylinder engine 185-horsepower 2.4-liter, 5-Speed Automatic, grade logic control transmission system.
    • Fuel efficiency of 23 city/31 hwy
    • The combined rating of this car is 26 mpg.

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    Surface mount technology in PCB

    PCBs are an innovation. PCBs have made circuits sturdy, small and neat as compared to early boards. This is the through hole technology of PCB fabrication. With time and requirement, the size if the PCB started appearing bigger. As this is an era of miniaturization, further reduction in size of the PCB was required. To cater to miniaturization of the circuits, surface mount technology came into effect. The components lack leads and can be soldered on the same side of the board where the circuit is.

    Features of the surface mount technology
    As the name suggests, components are placed on the same surface where the circuit design is soldered. This saves the other surface of the PCB substrate and it can also be utilized to design a circuit and placement of circuit components. The circuit components for surface mount technology are different from conventional components. They are flat profiled, small and give minimum height and length to the circuit.

    A metallic bed is prepared for them on the circuit. The components have metallic ends. The components are placed on the bed and are soldered on the same surface. Even though they are on the same surface, a few holes need to be drilled on the board to connecting the circuits through on the two surfaces. These are called vias. They are useful in expelling heat from a circuit.

    Circuit components are designed specifically for surface mount boards, ICs, resistors, capacitors, etc. all come in a very miniature and small flat profiled form. The main and the basic motive is to minimize the circuit.


    • The technology has become possible only because of the flat profile and small components. This has resulted in massive miniaturization of the circuits due to small component size, high density fabrication and utilization of both sides of the PCB substrate.
    • The data speeds are very good in surface mount technologies due to small track lengths and good circuit design.
    • The cost of production is low. Mass production of the components can be done and only few holes need to be drilled on the boards.
    • It offers less resistance to shocks and vibrations due to less height of the boards.
    • Low RF leakage and inductance at the soldering ends.


    • Reliability of solder joints is a major concern. With the miniaturization, soldering area is becoming minimal. They can also be damaged by impulsive jerks and potting compounds while thermal treatment.
    • These boards are not compatible with breadboard sockets. Hence they are not friendly to test.
    • They are not suitable for high power applications.
    • Skilled operators and workforce is required to tackle the problems associated with surface mount boards.

    How a Dry Sump System of Lubrication in Automobile Works

    A dry sump is a lubricating oil management system which is commonly used in four stroke and big two stroke engines. It uses an external reservoir to store the oil and an external pump to circulate it. In four stroke engines, both lubrication and cooling is done by the lubricant oil.

    Like the wet sump system, the lubricant still falls at the base of the crank case. But unlike the wet sump system, it falls to a much deeper collection area. From there it is taken to a reservoir which is outside the engine and is cooled and deaerated. The oil pumps that perform this are called the scavenge pumps and are also located outside the engine and they are run by a belt that is connected to the crankshaft. The pumps which draw the oil from the reservoir and send it back to the engine with pressure is called the pressure pump. Both of these pressure pumps are connected to and are run by the crankshaft. Due to their design, one pulley at the front can run a certain number of pumps according to the need of the engine.

    Advantages of the dry sump system

    • The obvious advantage of a dry sump system is the increased oil capacity is offered by the reservoir which is kept away from the engine.
    • Since the reservoir is located in a different place and due to the thinner size of the sump, the engine can be mounted low in the vehicle. This provides better center of gravity.
    • Since the reservoir is external to the engine, it can also be used to improve weight distribution in the vehicle by relocating it to different positions.
    • Since more oil can be added due to the bigger size of the reservoir, it helps in better cooling of the engine and along with the transfer of oil, the blow-by gases also gets released.
    • Another important advantage is the issue of oil movement. In splash and pressure wet sump systems, due to cornering forces, the oil in the sump is displaced to a corner and the pickup tube would be uncovered temporarily. This problem is easily overcome in dry sump engines as the pickup pumps receive oil from the engine not by pressure but by gravity.
    • In a wet sump, excess of oil around the crank shaft can get on it and decrease horsepower. Studies show that there is increase in working efficiency as much as 15 hp by changing to a dry sump.
    • Easy to repair as it does not require opening up the engine.


    • The cost is much higher compared to that of a wet sump, and is more complicated.
    • Since a separate tank is needed, extra space has to be managed for this purpose.
    • The pump requires its own drive belt, which makes it difficult to accommodate in front wheel drive vehicles.
    • The pump should be placed very low for good scavenging and this again takes up space which can be used by other components.

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    Electronics: A Friend to Medical Science

    Apart from being a very indispensable industry, medical industry plays a very key role in every individual’s life for maintenance of the most wonderful machine, the human body. The industry stands as insurance at call for a wealth asset – your health.

    How electronics benefits medical science
    Since time immemorial, there has been several constraints inhibiting the reach of people to the medical care and industry’s access to technology. An understanding of the human body has been limited and that limits its diagnostics in case of an ailment.

    The electronics industry came to rescue the medical science domain in overcoming these challenges and is providing them with the necessary tools and cutting edge technology. So, the human race is being served in a better way.

    ElectroCardiography (ECG)
    ElectroCardiography (ECG) is a method to record the electrical activity of the heart by placing non-invasive electrodes over the skin. Although invasive points can also be used to record the electrical activity of the heart. It’s mostly used for detecting and treating heart abnormalities and heart based research.

    Before the ECG entered into the picture, transthoracic interpretation over the time was used.

    The ECG apparatus keeps track of heart’s conductivity system. The polarization and depolarization of the heart because of the pumping generates electrical impulses. These impulses are used by the ECG to represent them pictorially in a graph. These graphical traces can later be used to know about various parameters of heart such as regularity of heartbeats, size and position, and the effect of drugs and pacemakers.

    The ECG has achieved significant and historical modifications due to very advanced and innovative measures like critical alarm systems and data storage benefits.

    EEG (EelctroEnchephaloGraphy)
    EEG refers to recording the electrical activity of the brain through multiple electrodes that are places on the scalp. These electrodes vary the voltages that are caused due to change in ionic current in the neurons of the brain. These signals of small magnitude are amplified and represented pictorially in a graphical form. This technology is widely used for for analyzing and diagnosing sleep disorders, coma, epilepsy, tumors and strokes, etc.

    Apart from these, they are widely used for monitoring brain activity, to determine the levels of anesthesia, and testing by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) test.

    EEG is extensively used in the study of fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, psychophysiology, etc. for research purpose.

    With the advent of CT and MRI technologies, EEG may lose its significance as it traces only the exterior signals and has a limited spatial resolution. Therefore, they can not give access to the drug target areas of the brain. However, they are still better than CT and MRI when millisecond temporal resolution is needed, which of CT and MRI systems cannot do – it’s their drawback.

    Pacemakers – an artificial heart
    Human heart is furnished with a natural pacemaker that regulates the heart beat rate. In cases, when the pacemaker is not performing up to its expected level and there is an irregularity in heartbeats as in case of arrhythmia, an artificial pacemaker has to be inserted to correct the heart beat pattern.

    A pacemaker generally consist of electrodes that are attached to heart for detecting the beats and regulating them. In some cases, they consist of several electrodes to synchronize the lower chambers of the heart as well. Modern Pacemakers are programmable in nature, which allows the cardiologist to adjust to the requirement of the case.

    The pacemaker is inserted under skin. Therefore, frequent pacemaker checkups have to be exercised by the patient.

    Procedural risk and infection is a possible threat and demerit of this approach.

    Computed tomography
    X-Ray based computed tomography is gaining popularity over the traditional ultrasound and x-ray technology. This method produces the tomographic images of the sections scanned with the help of computer processed X-rays. A number of such virtual slices are stacked together to get a holistic and 3D view of the inside of the target part without cutting it open. This is very helpful in diagnosis of many diseases and abnormalities in heart, lungs, brain abdominal and pelvic region.

    The CT scan comes as an advantage over traditional 2D approaches as it eliminates unwanted details and provides better resolution. The final images can be viewed in different planes to simplify the diagnostics.

    The exposure of body parts to excessive and prolonged doses can result in the threats of cancer. Therefore, due care has to taken while carrying out these procedures.

    The diagnosis and treatment by “machine” has achieved new heights with the help of electronics industry coming in rescue to the medical field and mankind. This is likely to help medical silence experts invent reliable and economically viable methods that could fight diseases and boost life expectancy.
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    The Working of a Car Suspension System

    How comfortable does a passenger in a car feel if the car is traveling at an average speed, and the road has cracks and gutters? Not very much. On the other hand, imagine a car traveling on the smoothest surface possible at a high speed. Comfort will be maximum. The first scenario can happen as long the driver or passenger wishes to have it. But scenario 2 is a little different.

    Fuel pumpHorizontal and vertical accelerations
    Apart from the comfort factor, if a surface is too smooth, there will be no traction for the wheels and so, even at normal speeds, the car would slip away from its path or sometimes the tires would even lose contact with the ground. Thus, some vertical force (one can call it obstruction) is needed for the car to grip onto the ground and move. Therefore, in order not to cancel out this vertical force and at the same time reduce it to a certain level so that the vehicle does not suffer too much damage, a system called suspension is used.

    The suspension system
    The suspension system supports the weight of the frame and helps it to maintain contact with the wheels always. The parts of suspension system are

    Car chassis
    The chassis is a very important aspect in a suspension system. All components of the suspension system are located in it, and ‘chassis’ basically includes a suspension system. It is prominent because it directly participates in the process of suspension. Apart from other systems, the chassis contains the frame and the suspension system.

    The frame
    This is the basic, framework that supports the entire weight of the vehicle and forms a platform to hold all the other crucial working components in place. Basically, it forms the skeleton of the chassis.

    Coil springs
    This is the most common of suspension devices. It is basically a hard metal bar wound around an axis and it expands or shrinks according to the vertical movements of the vehicle.

    Leaf springs
    This a set of metal bars combined together into a unit. The bars are also called ‘leaves’.

    Torsion bars
    The torsion bar is that which uses the twisting properties of steel as suspension. The ends of he torsion bar is connected perpendicularly to a wishbone. When the wheels receive vertical force, the wishbone presses against the torsion bar and receives torsion.

    The shock absorber:
    A vehicle’s suspension system cannot be successful only with springs. With just the springs, there is no limit or control about how much the vehicle will bounce when it hits a bump. This can result in a lot of undesirable things like acceleration squat, body roll and sway. The shock absorber is the most important device of a suspension system. It uses dampening mechanism to keep the springs in control and provide adequate support to the frame.
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    Technical Features and Advantages of a ‘V’ Engine

    The V-type of engine has two rows of cylinders at an angle usually of 90 degrees. The working of a V engine is similar to that of a flat engine except the angle. Different angles of a v-type engine gives rise to different levels of smoothness. Some steep angles of the engine combines the advantages of V and flat engines and also the disadvantages.

    Its advantages are its short length, the great rigidity of the block, its heavy crankshaft, and attractive low profile (for a car with a low hood).

    Since it is short, it is compact and can be mounted easily. It is desirable in a vehicle with a small hood since the engine can be fit without negotiating passenger space. This engine lends itself to very high compression ratios without block distortion under load, resistance to torsional vibration. In-line engines have cylinders arranged, one after the other, in a straight line. Overall, V type engines are better and more powerful.

    V engines are both used in cars and motorcycles. It is a highly preferred one in motorcycles due to its compactness.


    V2 (V-twin): Has two cylinders mounted in a ‘V’ shape. Most of The V-twin connecting rods share the same crank-pin. The cylinders can either be off-set in two different planes or can be set in the same plane using the ‘fork and knife’ connecting rods.

    V4: V4 has been used in vehicles very less compared to the other V engines. The only advantage it has is that it is small in size and still can produce 140 horse power.

    V6: The V6 has 6 cylinders, three of them joining the other three at a right angle or an acute angle. Like all V engines, all the pistons rotate the same crankshaft. It is a commonly used basic configuration of engines in modern cars after straight-4.

    V8: A V8 can be defined as two sets of straight-4 cylinders acting on the same crankshaft. They produce more power compared to a V6, but has the disadvantages of being costly and consumptive on fuel.

    V10: A V10 is two straight-five engines coupled together. V12 is slightly more complicated and runs more smoothly, while a V8 is less complex and more economical. V10 is not found much in common purpose in cars, but highly used in F1 racing.

    The other V engines are V10, V12, V14, V16, V18, V20 and V24 as of today, where the number after ‘V’ indicates the number of cylinders.
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    Leading Brands in 2014 as per Car Brand Perception Survey

    Consumer reports released the results of annual car brand perception survey. It shows some interesting results. Chevrolet, Honda, Ford and Toyota are still at the top. In overall scores, these brands have significant advantages. Even though several other brands including Tesla are improved their rankings. In the survey there are seven categories of consumer perception considered. Those are innovation or technology, style or design, fuel economy, value, performance, safety and quality. The total brand perception score is came out by combining those factors.

    Best and worst:
    With a 145 point score, Toyota is at the top of overall brand perception. The next top brands up to ten ranks are Ford (120), Honda (109), Chevrolet (105), Tesla Motors (88), Subaru (87), Mercedes Benz (82), Volvo (80), Cadillac (78) and BMW (73). From the worst perception by the consumer Land Rover is at top with four points. Maserati and jaguar scored 8 and 9 points respectively. Above ten points in the worst brand are Rolls Royce (11), Scion and Ram with 17, Mini and Mitsubishi with 21, Infiniti 22 and Jeep is 23.

    Important factors to buy:
    Quality is the most important factor while buying a new car and opted by the 90 percent of consumers, safety 88 percent, fuel economy 81 percent and performance is 83 percent. These preferences are constant as previous year. Value factor is decreased from 83 percent of 2013 to 82 percent in 2014. Design or style and technology or innovation have 65 percent in previous year and now increased to 70 percent for design/style and 68 percent for technology/innovation. Now let us see these factors in brand wise.

    • Quality: Toyota, Mercedes Benz, Ford, Chevrolet, and Honda (respectively as per the rankings) are the top five best brands considered by the car owners in 2014. Same brands are in the top five positions in previous year also. But there are some changes in their positions. In 2013 Honda is in first place, Toyota, Mercedes Benz, Ford and Chevrolet are in the order of top five.
    • Safety: For safety, Volvo continues in the top position with sixty percent score. Next to it four in top five are Subaru, Toyota, Ford and Honda. Mercedes Benz has lost its position from top five and Subaru occupied the second position.
    • Performance: The top five brands in the performance are Chevrolet, BMW, Ford, Audi, and Lamborghini. In the previous year, top five are Ferrari, BMW, Chevrolet, Ford, and Honda.
    • Value: Toyota, Honda, Ford and Chevrolet are continued its first, second, third and fifth positions. Car owners prefer Kia and it has come to fourth place in which Hyundai in the previous year.

    The scores do not reflect any brand’s vehicle actual qualities, they reflect a brand’s image. Here the word ‘perception’ is influenced by hands on experience, marketing, and word of mouth. The perception is also an indicator that reflecting years of bad or good performance.
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