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Archives for Science-n-Technology

Necessity of Cloud Computing


Cloud computing is a method or technique which is helpful to gather the related data over the internet as a source. Cloud Computing is an effective, reliable and a cost control online computing. It allows us to use and store the information and programs for different purposes. It works as an intangible medium where we need not to have the hard drives for the storage of different programs and required information.

Different Platforms of Cloud Computing

Software as a Service (SaaS)
SaaS stands for Software as a service or it can be treated as (B2B) Business to Business. On the demand of a user the licensing and delivery of the software is provided to the user as a service on subscription. On the demand of the user the software is being provided in cloud computing to manage their work process. With a internet connection the SaaS facility can be available.
Examples of SaaS products : Google Apps, Sales Force, Marketo, Workday, Citrix GoToMeeting.
Short glance on its products Google Drive and G-mail are the product of google Apps which is trending and widely used by it’s users. It is used to store the data online instead of storing in a hard disk of a computer. The data can easily be accessible by the user and he also can allow others to use the same data for sharing purpose and also with the features of maintaining high security and storing the necessary data

Platform as a Service (PaaS)
PaaS is a category of cloud computing which allows customers to develop and manage the application without creating any infrastructure which is needed to manage the web applications, its development and introducing apps in the market.
Examples of PaaS : AWS Elastic Beanstalk, Apache Stratos, Google App Engine, Windows Azure.

Infrastructure as a Service
It is a kind of cloud computing that provides computing infrastructure resources over the internet. It allows users to use virtual machines, servers, storage and network on the basis of required consumption.
Iaas Example: Amazon Web Services (AWS), Cisco Metapod, Microsoft Azure, Google Compute Engine (GCE).

Benefits of Cloud Computing

  • Profitable for Small Scale Business
    As it is well known that small scale business cannot invest more on installation of software, hardware and server. So they can use cloud computing as an alternative to that, where they can receive the required things through cloud computing and can invest the capital on training the people and improving their production and result.
  • Performance of Cloud Computing
    Cloud computing provides the well and accurate data to the end user, by which the user can also be benefited in their outcome of any work.
  • Security in Cloud
    In cloud everything is highly secured. There are less chances of misuse of data of a company or an individual which can affect their work performance.
  • User Friendly
    It is easy for an user or an organization to understand the working process at cloud computing, as it is user friendly where the storing, accessing and sharing of data and programs can easily be manageable.

The cloud computing products can be easily accessed by the user from anywhere. The users can develop, modify and run the internet based applications with an internet connection. It creates an useful medium to work effectively.

Feb 8, 2017

Surface mount technology in PCB


PCBs are an innovation. PCBs have made circuits sturdy, small and neat as compared to early boards. This is the through hole technology of PCB fabrication. With time and requirement, the size if the PCB started appearing bigger. As this is an era of miniaturization, further reduction in size of the PCB was required. To cater to miniaturization of the circuits, surface mount technology came into effect. The components lack leads and can be soldered on the same side of the board where the circuit is.

Features of the surface mount technology
As the name suggests, components are placed on the same surface where the circuit design is soldered. This saves the other surface of the PCB substrate and it can also be utilized to design a circuit and placement of circuit components. The circuit components for surface mount technology are different from conventional components. They are flat profiled, small and give minimum height and length to the circuit.

A metallic bed is prepared for them on the circuit. The components have metallic ends. The components are placed on the bed and are soldered on the same surface. Even though they are on the same surface, a few holes need to be drilled on the board to connecting the circuits through on the two surfaces. These are called vias. They are useful in expelling heat from a circuit.

Circuit components are designed specifically for surface mount boards, ICs, resistors, capacitors, etc. all come in a very miniature and small flat profiled form. The main and the basic motive is to minimize the circuit.


  • The technology has become possible only because of the flat profile and small components. This has resulted in massive miniaturization of the circuits due to small component size, high density fabrication and utilization of both sides of the PCB substrate.
  • The data speeds are very good in surface mount technologies due to small track lengths and good circuit design.
  • The cost of production is low. Mass production of the components can be done and only few holes need to be drilled on the boards.
  • It offers less resistance to shocks and vibrations due to less height of the boards.
  • Low RF leakage and inductance at the soldering ends.


  • Reliability of solder joints is a major concern. With the miniaturization, soldering area is becoming minimal. They can also be damaged by impulsive jerks and potting compounds while thermal treatment.
  • These boards are not compatible with breadboard sockets. Hence they are not friendly to test.
  • They are not suitable for high power applications.
  • Skilled operators and workforce is required to tackle the problems associated with surface mount boards.
Sep 3, 2014

How a Dry Sump System of Lubrication in Automobile Works


A dry sump is a lubricating oil management system which is commonly used in four stroke and big two stroke engines. It uses an external reservoir to store the oil and an external pump to circulate it. In four stroke engines, both lubrication and cooling is done by the lubricant oil.

Like the wet sump system, the lubricant still falls at the base of the crank case. But unlike the wet sump system, it falls to a much deeper collection area. From there it is taken to a reservoir which is outside the engine and is cooled and deaerated. The oil pumps that perform this are called the scavenge pumps and are also located outside the engine and they are run by a belt that is connected to the crankshaft. The pumps which draw the oil from the reservoir and send it back to the engine with pressure is called the pressure pump. Both of these pressure pumps are connected to and are run by the crankshaft. Due to their design, one pulley at the front can run a certain number of pumps according to the need of the engine.

Advantages of the dry sump system

  • The obvious advantage of a dry sump system is the increased oil capacity is offered by the reservoir which is kept away from the engine.
  • Since the reservoir is located in a different place and due to the thinner size of the sump, the engine can be mounted low in the vehicle. This provides better center of gravity.
  • Since the reservoir is external to the engine, it can also be used to improve weight distribution in the vehicle by relocating it to different positions.
  • Since more oil can be added due to the bigger size of the reservoir, it helps in better cooling of the engine and along with the transfer of oil, the blow-by gases also gets released.
  • Another important advantage is the issue of oil movement. In splash and pressure wet sump systems, due to cornering forces, the oil in the sump is displaced to a corner and the pickup tube would be uncovered temporarily. This problem is easily overcome in dry sump engines as the pickup pumps receive oil from the engine not by pressure but by gravity.
  • In a wet sump, excess of oil around the crank shaft can get on it and decrease horsepower. Studies show that there is increase in working efficiency as much as 15 hp by changing to a dry sump.
  • Easy to repair as it does not require opening up the engine.


  • The cost is much higher compared to that of a wet sump, and is more complicated.
  • Since a separate tank is needed, extra space has to be managed for this purpose.
  • The pump requires its own drive belt, which makes it difficult to accommodate in front wheel drive vehicles.
  • The pump should be placed very low for good scavenging and this again takes up space which can be used by other components.

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May 21, 2014

Electronics: A Friend to Medical Science


Apart from being a very indispensable industry, medical industry plays a very key role in every individual’s life for maintenance of the most wonderful machine, the human body. The industry stands as insurance at call for a wealth asset – your health.

How electronics benefits medical science
Since time immemorial, there has been several constraints inhibiting the reach of people to the medical care and industry’s access to technology. An understanding of the human body has been limited and that limits its diagnostics in case of an ailment.

The electronics industry came to rescue the medical science domain in overcoming these challenges and is providing them with the necessary tools and cutting edge technology. So, the human race is being served in a better way.

ElectroCardiography (ECG)
ElectroCardiography (ECG) is a method to record the electrical activity of the heart by placing non-invasive electrodes over the skin. Although invasive points can also be used to record the electrical activity of the heart. It’s mostly used for detecting and treating heart abnormalities and heart based research.

Before the ECG entered into the picture, transthoracic interpretation over the time was used.

The ECG apparatus keeps track of heart’s conductivity system. The polarization and depolarization of the heart because of the pumping generates electrical impulses. These impulses are used by the ECG to represent them pictorially in a graph. These graphical traces can later be used to know about various parameters of heart such as regularity of heartbeats, size and position, and the effect of drugs and pacemakers.

The ECG has achieved significant and historical modifications due to very advanced and innovative measures like critical alarm systems and data storage benefits.

EEG (EelctroEnchephaloGraphy)
EEG refers to recording the electrical activity of the brain through multiple electrodes that are places on the scalp. These electrodes vary the voltages that are caused due to change in ionic current in the neurons of the brain. These signals of small magnitude are amplified and represented pictorially in a graphical form. This technology is widely used for for analyzing and diagnosing sleep disorders, coma, epilepsy, tumors and strokes, etc.

Apart from these, they are widely used for monitoring brain activity, to determine the levels of anesthesia, and testing by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) test.

EEG is extensively used in the study of fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, psychophysiology, etc. for research purpose.

With the advent of CT and MRI technologies, EEG may lose its significance as it traces only the exterior signals and has a limited spatial resolution. Therefore, they can not give access to the drug target areas of the brain. However, they are still better than CT and MRI when millisecond temporal resolution is needed, which of CT and MRI systems cannot do – it’s their drawback.

Pacemakers – an artificial heart
Human heart is furnished with a natural pacemaker that regulates the heart beat rate. In cases, when the pacemaker is not performing up to its expected level and there is an irregularity in heartbeats as in case of arrhythmia, an artificial pacemaker has to be inserted to correct the heart beat pattern.

A pacemaker generally consist of electrodes that are attached to heart for detecting the beats and regulating them. In some cases, they consist of several electrodes to synchronize the lower chambers of the heart as well. Modern Pacemakers are programmable in nature, which allows the cardiologist to adjust to the requirement of the case.

The pacemaker is inserted under skin. Therefore, frequent pacemaker checkups have to be exercised by the patient.

Procedural risk and infection is a possible threat and demerit of this approach.

Computed tomography
X-Ray based computed tomography is gaining popularity over the traditional ultrasound and x-ray technology. This method produces the tomographic images of the sections scanned with the help of computer processed X-rays. A number of such virtual slices are stacked together to get a holistic and 3D view of the inside of the target part without cutting it open. This is very helpful in diagnosis of many diseases and abnormalities in heart, lungs, brain abdominal and pelvic region.

The CT scan comes as an advantage over traditional 2D approaches as it eliminates unwanted details and provides better resolution. The final images can be viewed in different planes to simplify the diagnostics.

The exposure of body parts to excessive and prolonged doses can result in the threats of cancer. Therefore, due care has to taken while carrying out these procedures.

The diagnosis and treatment by “machine” has achieved new heights with the help of electronics industry coming in rescue to the medical field and mankind. This is likely to help medical silence experts invent reliable and economically viable methods that could fight diseases and boost life expectancy.
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Apr 27, 2014

The Blind Spot Detection and Warning technology


This system consists of two radar units and it is similar to lane change assistance system. This technology devices are mounted invisibly to the corners of the rear bumper. From those two radar units one will operate as a system master and the other is configured as a slave. With the help of private data link, the data of both the radar units will combine with the sensor data fusion tracking algorithm.

On the sides of the car, the two radars are pointed well and this will detect the moving vehicle beside the car fitted radar. The area that contains five lanes is scanned. Compared to the lane change assistance systems, the range of the rear is shorter, but this BSP is very easy to install and lower in cost. So, this will optimize for the freeways and slow speed urban driving. This system gives very low false alarm rate and performs excellently.

This system performs, objective to lane mapping, tracking, the warning algorithms and detection algorithms and the extra customer code can also be integrated. This system requires no extra control units. This cost efficient master slave and innovative system design interfaces all controls and indicators and performs all the functions and also communicates with the vehicle data bus.

This radar sensors monitor the space behind the road and alongside the car, also display the visual signal which is near the outside mirror. This is to indicate is their any moving vehicle in the blind spot.

This system can withstand strain and monitors the areas that are difficult to see to avoid the hazardous situations to the driver. Read the rest of this post

Oct 1, 2013

New Trends in Solar Panels for Sustainable Electricity Generation


Solar panels, also called photovoltaic cells are devices that convert sunlight into electricity. Today, solar energy is widely used for domestic as well as commercial purposes.

The advancement of technology has made it possible to produce solar energy equipment at low cost. The modern equipment is more efficient than the earlier ones.

There is a huge advancement in solar panel technology – Crystalline solar panels, Thin Film technology and Multi-junction technology are considered the best performers in power generation. We will read more about these technologies in this article.

Crystalline solar panels
They are made of silicon and are based on the arrangement of silicon crystals. There are two types of crystalline solar panels – Mono-crystalline and Poly-crystalline.

  • Mono-crystalline solar panels
    These are the most efficient and popular used solar panels. They are made using single coating of silicon. A square meter mono-crystalline solar panel can generate 110-220 watts of electricity. These panels are more reliable as their life time ranges between 10-30 years. The performance of mono-crystalline panels are best during high and low light conditions. They are 11-22% efficient in harvesting power. They require low maintenance and are easy to replace on small area or roof. The disadvantage of this technology is its cost. Though it is made from silicon (sand), purifying cost of the mineral makes it highly expensive.
  • Poly-crystalline solar panels
    Poly means many. Poly-crystalline solar panels are made using different crystals. Different types of crystals are fused together to make a single device. A square meter poly-crystalline solar panel can harvest 120-130 watts power. Manufacturing cost is very low and thus is the cheapest source of solar energy. Panels are 13.5% efficient in energy conversion. Poly-crystalline panels require less space than mono-crystalline to setup on the roof. The only disadvantage is their less efficiency when compared to mono-crystalline solar panels.

Thin Film technology
This technology makes it possible to produce thin solar panels that can be easily incorporated in the building’s envelop. However, this technology is less efficient in power generation compared to crystalline panels. A square feet thin film solar panel could harvest 60-70 watts power. These panels can produce more power in hot conditions, thus, are ideal for hot climate and where place is not a limiting factor to install. Disadvantage with these panels is they are difficult to replace.

Multi-junction technology
Multi-junction solar panel technology generates 50% more power when compared to other solar panel technologies. This technology absorbs maximum sunlight compared to its counterparts. This technology is reliable in its performance with 25 to 30 years of life time.

Solar energy is perennial and non-polluting. Solar panels were invented recently and have shown their efficiency and reliability in power generation. They are getting popular day by day across the globe.

Apr 29, 2013

Know about Remote Desktop Service


website monitorRemote Desktop Service is a technology with the help of which, you will be able to sit on your system and get connected to the host computer, which is located at a different location. More specifically, by going in for this technology, you, on your part will get access to your office system from your desktop and at the same time can also get access to your applications, network resources as well as files. All you need to do on your part is to leave your system at office with programs running and by the time you get home you can get access to your workplace system with the similar programs running.

Many industries including the management ones have benefited by this technology. With the advent of this technology, you can install new updates and applications on all computers via a single order without executing the same individually. Over and above, by going in for this technology, you can, not only identify various computer issues but then can also debug the same.

Not only management industries, instead you will find the use of remote desktop service even in educational institutions aimed at helping the students with multiple options like online learning and distance learning. By going in for this option, you will find that students can watch or learn a presentation or workout an exercise by getting access and connected to the system of their institution. In addition to the management industries and education sector, you will also find the use of this technology in the telecommuting sector. In recent times, you can get access to various telecommuting opportunities wherein a worker can work from any corner of the world. The only thing that s/he will need is an Internet connection and computer or laptop. Read the rest of this post

Aug 17, 2012

Server Monitoring for Software and Hardware Applications


website monitoringFor online businesses the performance of active website generates revenue and it generates a loyal relationship with website visitors. Servers are important to businesses because all web applications hosted in servers. Server performance activates the web applications to generate great website traffic.

Server monitoring is important for healthy servers, it monitors all software and hardware application in servers. Regular server monitoring monitors all the application in website to find the errors to prevent those immediately.

Manual monitoring of website reviews, events, identify errors is difficult, using these monitoring tools automatically provides solutions to reduce the website risks.

website monitorRouters or firewalls reduce network performance; server monitoring facilities prevent those connection failures to prevent network failures. Website failures happen because of cable connection failures of servers. However, server monitoring prevents those connection failures in initial times and provides active websites.

Server monitoring activates the websites with error free server performances. These monitoring facilities increase website uptime. Read the rest of this post

Jul 18, 2012