After three years of negotiations, a peace deal ended Sudan’s two-decades-long civil war. It was signed on January 9, 2005. This peace pact ended the conflict between the Arab-Muslim government of the North and the black Christian and animist south. The entire peace process was done a weeks later of Garang’s death.
The protracted negotiations had largely stalled over oil reserves, because 75 percent of which are located in the South only. The peace agreement gave half of Sudan’s oil wealth to the south, as well as complete autonomy and the right to secede.
Sudan was not able to gain complete peace in its western region. International condemnation and a modest group of African Union peacekeepers tried to end the violence but were successful only to some extent. The Janjaweed, pro-government Arabic militias were still slaughtering the black villagers. By the end of 2005, approximately 200,000 and 400,000 Darfuris had been killed and more than 2 million displaced.